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Glossary of Drug and Alcohol Terms

These terms are not inclusive and are a collection of information gathered from other reputable sites. Click here for a printable version of this list. Revised August 2020. 

AA: Alcoholics Anonymous. An international mutual aid fellowship with the purpose of enabling its members to achieve recovery and help others with alcohol use disorder to achieve recovery. The AA program of recovery is set forth in the Twelve Steps.

AAA: Area Agency on Aging. Department responsible for administering Bucks County's programs and services for older adults and senior citizens, including home care, meals, etc.

Act 33: Act 124 of 1975 & Act 136 of 1982. Child Protective Services Law. A law which requires certain individuals to obtain clearances in order to be employed, be a resource parent (foster or adoptive), or be a volunteer with children.

Act 35: This Act strengthened the procedures for determining a recipient’s eligibility to receive Medical Assistance Benefits from the PA Department of Human Services. The changes include residency, employability and age requirements. The Act went into effect in 1996.

Act 53: Involuntary Commitment of Minors for Drug and Alcohol Treatment. A law in the state of Pennsylvania which allows a parent or legal guardian to get a drug and alcohol assessment for their child age 12-17 and - if warranted - compel the child to enter treatment.

Act 126: This Act broadens the information that can be shed on individuals in treatment and included in Juvenile Court.

Act 152: Legislation that provides for an allocation of state funds to SCAs for the provision of inpatient non-hospital withdrawal management and rehabilitation services to recipients of Medical Assistance (MA). Prior to this Act, public assistance recipients were limited to outpatient or hospital-based substance use disorder treatment services through their MA. After January 1997 Act 152 funding for the five Southeastern counties was rolled into their capitated Medicaid Managed Care contract with the state Department of Human Services.

Act 211: A state law that requires all public schools to provide instruction in alcohol, chemical and tobacco abuse in grades K-12 and to establish a community coalition to address these issues.

Act 1972-63: Pennsylvania Drug and Alcohol Abuse Control Act. The statute that governs the confidentiality of client records prepared or obtained under the Act. It applies to records of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) treatment prepared or obtained by any SUD or medical provider.

Act 1972-64: The Controlled Substance, Drug Device and Cosmetic Act. Relating to the manufacture, sale and possession of controlled substances, other drugs, devices and cosmetics; conferring powers on the courts and the secretary and Department of Health, and a newly created Pennsylvania Drug, Device and Cosmetic Board; establishing schedules of controlled substances; providing penalties; requiring registration of persons engaged in the drug trade and for the revocation or suspension of certain licenses and registrations; and repealing an act.

Act 1985-119: Established the Pennsylvania Advisory Council on Drug and Alcohol Abuse. This law established the Governor's Council on Drug and Alcohol Abuse, which was to be chaired by the Governor.

Act 1986-64: Amended the Insurance Company Law of 1921 to include benefits for alcohol abuse and dependence in group insurance plans.

Act 1988-152: Amended the Act of April 9, 1929 (P.L. 177, No. 175) providing for benefits for non-hospital alcohol and drug withdrawal management and treatment.

Act 1989-106: Amended the Insurance Company Law of 1921 to include benefits for drug abuse and dependency in group insurance plans.

Act 1997-53: Amended Bucks County’s partner in the provision of behavioral health services to Medicaid recipients.

Addiction: A chronic dysfunction of the brain system that involves reward, motivation, and memory. It’s about the way your body craves a substance or behavior, especially if it causes a compulsive or obsessive pursuit of “reward” and lack of concern over consequences.

Advocacy: Interceding on behalf or in support of an individual; speaking out on behalf of an individual when negotiating with social service agencies and treatment agencies when the individual is denied services or treatment and cannot successfully negotiate on his or her own. The process of being a proponent for the individual in helping to remove any obstacles that may prevent the individual from obtaining necessary services.

AFA: “Against Facility Advice” is the term used when an individual leaves treatment without the advice of the treatment team.

Aftercare: Treatment services and supports designed to assist the individual in achieving and maintaining long-term recovery.

Al-Anon: Al-Anon Family Groups is a worldwide fellowship that offers a program of recovery for the families and friends of individuals with alcohol use disorder. It helps family and friends to understand alcohol use disorder and its effects on them.

Alateen: Similar to Al-Anon; for teenage children living with a person with alcohol use disorder.

AMA: “Against Medical Advice” is the term used when an individual leaves treatment without the advice of the medical team.

AOC: Approval of Care. This department approves funding for substance use disorder treatment for Bucks County residents without insurance, for those who are underinsured or have lost their primary insurance.

Appeal: A request for reconsideration of a denial of authorization for a prescribed or recommended service that was made by an appropriately qualified practitioner. This reconsideration request is based on progressive stages until a grievance is resolved.

ASAM: The American Society of Addiction Medicine. This organization has developed patient placement criteria for the treatment of psychoactive substance use disorders. ASAM criteria provides a way to match individuals with substance use disorders with the services and tools they need for a successful and long-term recovery.

Assessment: The process of gathering information from an individual seeking treatment to ascertain the degree and severity of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, the social, physical and psychological effects of that use, to determine an individual’s strengths, resources, preferences, limitations, problems, and needs.

ATOD: Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs.

AWOL: “Away Without Leave” is a term used when an individual leaves treatment without the advice of the treatment team.

BAC: Blood Alcohol Content. In Pennsylvania, the legal BAC level is 0.08 percent. If an individual is driving with a BAC of over 0.08 percent, he or she can be considered legally over the limit and may be charged with DUI (driving under the influence).

Barrier: An impediment to accessing treatment and/or support services.

BCARES: Bucks County Connect Assess Refer Engage Support (BCARES). Bucks County’s warm handoff initiative for individuals who survived an overdose from any substance. BCARES takes place in all six Bucks County hospital emergency departments or other hospital units. The goal of BCARES is to offer a direct connection from the hospital to drug and alcohol treatment.

BCARES Family Connect: Made up of a group of family members who have a loved one with a substance use disorder. They use their lived experience to provide support to other families who are having difficulty coping with their loved one’s substance use. BCARES Family Connect can be reached at BCARESFamilyConnect@gmail.com.

BCARES Health Care Professionals Opposing Stigma: A group of health care professional who are all in long-term recovery. They tell their recovery stories and provide education to other healthcare professionals at the six Bucks County hospitals. Their goal is to reduce stigma among health care professionals.

BCDAC, Inc.: Bucks County Drug & Alcohol Commission, Inc. Designated by the County Commissioners as the agency responsible for the planning, implementation and supervision of all alcohol and other drug prevention, intervention and treatment services in Bucks County. Operates with the assistance of a policy setting, governing board appointed by the County Commissioners.

BC-RHA: Bucks County Recovery House Association. Made up of dedicated Recovery House owners who collaborate with different entities to provide oversight of houses that volunteer to be part of the association. There are guidelines that must be adhered to by the Recovery Houses to ensure a safe, sober and structured living environment for those in early recovery. Each Recovery House that is part of the association agrees to be monitored and comply with recommendations, as well as help resolve any complaints and grievances that may come through the complaint process.

BC-ROC: Bucks County Recovery Residence Oversight Committee. BC-ROC has been established to provide additional oversight to recovery houses throughout Bucks County, and to provide funding assistance to qualified individuals for up to 60 days at recovery houses approved through BC-ROC.

BCRU: Bensalem Community Response Unit. A specialized response to overdoses that take place in Bensalem. A Certified Recovery Specialist (CRS) and a paramedic respond to the overdose in a specially equipped vehicle. The CRS will offer the individual a direct connection to drug and alcohol treatment.

Binge: A period of excessive indulgence in an activity, especially eating, drinking, or taking drugs.

BPAIR: Bucks County Police Assisting In Recovery. A program aimed towards getting help for individuals seeking substance use disorder treatment by connecting them with resources, support and services. Participating Police Departments help and support adult residents of Bucks County who are looking for help or struggling with substance use disorder.

BSU: Base Service Unit. Terminology for the assessment and intake function, provided under contract with the Bucks County Office of Mental Health/Mental Retardation, within the three Community Mental Health Centers in Bucks County; Penn Foundation, Lenape Valley Foundation and Penndel Mental Health Center. Through usage, the centers themselves have become known as Base Service Units, or BSUs.

C&Y: Children & Youth Social Services Agency. Department responsible for administering Bucks County’s programs and services for children and youth, including protective services, foster care, etc.

Capitation: A method of paying providers for health care services. Under a capitation arrangement, the plan pays the provider a set monthly amount for each member, regardless of how often the member actually uses services during that month, if at all. The assumption is that payments received for members who require few or no services will offset the cost for those members who need more extensive care. 

Case Management: Activities designed to ensure individual continuity of service, efficient and effective utilization of available resources and appropriateness of service to meet individual needs. In Bucks County, case management is carried out at the facility/agency level and is monitored and overseen by BCDAC, Inc. It is a strength based, collaborative process between the individual and a case manager.

Case Manager: An individual who performs screening, assessments, and/or Case Coordination, to include clinical staff at the provider level performing these functions.

CCAP: County Commissioners Association of Pennsylvania. Home of affiliate organizations of county social service programs including the PA Association of County Drug & Alcohol Administrators.

Ceiling: The maximum amount of funds, under fee for service reimbursement that can be drawn upon by an agency via the delivery of services.

CFRS: Certified Family Recovery Specialist. A credentialed adult who has been directly impacted by their own family member or loved one’s substance use disorder. The CFRS shares their lived experience with other families to provide recovery support services and understands the stigma associated with substance use disorder and its impact on the family. A CFRS is trained to help families move into and through the recovery process.

CLAS: National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services. The National CLAS Standards are a set of 15 action steps intended to advance health equity, improve quality, and help eliminate health care disparities by providing a blueprint for individuals and organizations to implement culturally and linguistically appropriate services.

Clinically Managed High-Intensity Residential Services (Adult): Programs designed to serve individuals who, because of specific functional limitations, need safe and stable living environments in order to develop and/or demonstrate sufficient recovery skills so that they do not immediately relapse or continue to use in a less intensive level of care. This level assists individuals whose SUD is currently so out of contract they need a 24-hour supportive treatment environment to initiate or continue a recovery process that has failed to progress.

Clinically Managed Low-Intensity Residential Services (Halfway House): Programs that offer a supportive living environment with 24-hour staff and integration with clinical services to include at least 5 hours per week of onsite SUD treatment. Treatment is characterized by services such as individual, group, and family therapy; medication management; and psychoeducation. These services facilitate the application of recovery skills, relapse prevention and emotional coping strategies. They promote personal responsibility and re-integration of the individual into the network systems of work, education, and family life. Services are characterized by a live-in, work out situation.

Clinically Managed Medium-Intensity Residential Services (Adolescent): Programs designed to serve individuals who, because of specific functional limitations, need safe and stable living environments in order to develop and/or demonstrate sufficient recovery skills so that they do not immediately relapse or continue to use in an imminently dangerous manner upon transfer to a less intensive level of care. These programs assist individuals whose SUD is currently so out of control that they need a 24-hour supportive treatment environment to initiate or continue a recovery process that has failed to progress. Adolescent residential services may specialize in the care of individuals who are involved in the juvenile justice system and whose problems include delinquency and juvenile justice involvement.

COA/ACOA: Children of Alcoholics/Adult Children of an Alcoholic. An organization intended to provide a forum for individuals who desire to recover from the effects of growing up in an alcoholic or otherwise dysfunctional family.

Community Development Approach/Philosophy: An approach to prevention that develops a community so that all elements of the community have the capability to address alcohol, tobacco and other drug abuse prevention needs. Prevention activities can occur within the workplace, family, school, peer group, neighborhood, community and countywide.

Concurrent Review: A routine review of the medical necessity for continued treatment, by an internal or external utilization reviewer, during the course of an individual’s treatment. Our Approval of Care office conducts concurrent reviews for individuals.

Consent: A form that an individual signs which gives permission to someone else to send or receive information on that individual. Also known as a Release of Information.

Contingency Management: An evidence-based intervention that uses tangible rewards to encourage positive behaviors during the treatment of substance use disorder (SUD).

Continuum of Care: A licensed or approved system of treatment services which enables the matching of individuals with the appropriate type and level of care. ASAM defines continuum of care as an integrated network of treatment services and non-clinical modalities, designed so that an individual’s changing needs will be met as that individual moves through the treatment and recovery process. Movement between providers is characterized by seamless transfer, congruence of treatment philosophy, and rapid clinical record transfer.

Continued Stay Review: The process for reviewing the appropriateness of continued stay at a level of care and/or referral to a more appropriate level of care. The BCDAC, Inc. Approval of Care Department conducts these reviews on individuals.

Co-occurring Disorder: Concurrent substance use and mental disorders. Other terms used to describe co-occurring disorders include “dual diagnosis,” “dual disorders,” “mentally ill chemically addicted,” “chemically addicted mentally ill,” “mentally ill substance abusers,” “concurrent disorders,” “coexisting disorders, “comorbid disorders.” Use of the term carries no implication as to which disorder is primary and which secondary, which disorder occurred first, or whether one disorder caused the other. (ASAM)

Co-pay or Co-payment: The out-of-pocket fee that individuals pay directly to a provider when they receive medical services.

Craving: An intense, urgent, or abnormal desire or longing to use substances or engage in addictive behaviors.

CRS: Certified Recovery Specialist. A credentialed individual with personal, lived experience in their own substance use disorder recovery. By offering insight into the recovery process based on their own experience, recovery specialists are able to provide a unique perspective while providing recovery support services. The CRS is not a sponsor, case manage or a therapist but rather a role model, mentor, advocate, and motivator.

CSAP: Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. A Federal lead agency under SAMHSA (Substance Abuse & Mental Health Service Administration) for alcohol, tobacco and other drug Prevention.

CSAT: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. A lead agency under SAMHSA (Substance Abuse & Mental Health Service Administration) that promotes the availability and quality of community-based substance use treatment services for individuals and families as needed. It supports policies and programs to broaden the range of evidence-based effective treatment services for people who misuse alcohol and drugs, and that also address other dependence-related health and human services problems.

CTC: Communities That Care. An “operating system” that takes communities through a well-defined and structured process to prevent adolescent problem behaviors and promote positive youth development. CTC communities form a broad-based coalition and then collect local data on risk and protective factors shown by research to be associated with delinquency, violence, substance use, and school failure and dropout. After collecting this data, the communities identify 3-5 specific risk and protective factors to focus on, and then seeks evidence-based programs and strategies to address those priorities. After 2-3 years of implementing these strategies, the community re-assesses their risk and protective factors to measure impact and identify new emerging priorities.

Cultural Awareness: The understanding of the differences of one's own culture and other cultures, including differences in backgrounds, attitudes and values.

Cultural Competency: The Pennsylvania Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs (DDAP) defines cultural competency as the ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures. Both individuals and organizations can be culturally competent. “Culture” is a term that goes beyond just race or ethnicity. It can also refer to such characteristics as age, gender, sexual orientation, disability, religion, income level, education, geographical location, profession, and other factors. Cultural competence means to be respectful and responsive to the health beliefs and practices – and cultural and linguistic needs – of diverse population groups.

Culturally Appropriate: Exhibiting sensitivity to cultural differences and similarities, and demonstrating effectiveness in translating that sensitivity to action through organizational mission statements, communication strategies, and services to diverse cultures.

D&A: Drug and Alcohol.

D.A.R.E.: Drug Abuse Resistance Education. D.A.R.E. is a 16 session AOD prevention education program facilitated by law enforcement officers. Usually taught in the "exit grade" before middle school, it is designed to equip elementary school children with skills for resisting peer pressure to experiment with AOD, including tobacco.

DASPOP: Drug & Alcohol Service Providers Organization of Pennsylvania. This is a 501©(4) lobbying Agency.

DC: Drug Court. A structured program designed to connect individuals involved in the criminal justice system to treatment. Individuals are closely monitored in the community by probation.

DCDP: District Court Diversion Program. This program is for Bucks County residents where an intervention is recommended as soon as possible to address both substance use disorder and legal charges.

DCDP-P: District Court Diversion Program-Probation. This program is for Bucks County residents where an intervention is recommended, and assignment to a probation officer is done as soon as possible to address both substance use disorder and legal charges.

DDAP: Pennsylvania Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs. A cabinet-level agency in the Government of Pennsylvania under Governor Tom Wolf. The objective of this department is to manage and distribute state and federal funds used to oversee alcohol and drug prevention, intervention and treatment services.

Deductible: A specified dollar amount that is paid by an individual before the plan begins to pay for covered services. In an insurance policy, the deductible is the amount paid out of pocket by the policy holder before an insurance provider will pay any expenses.

Detoxification: The process of withdrawing an individual through medical treatment in a safe and effective manner from drug or alcohol use until the bloodstream is free of toxins.

DHS: Department of Human Services. A national or subnational umbrella agency which is responsible for providing public assistance programs to the population they serve.

Discharge: An individual is no longer involved with a treatment service due to completion of said treatment or is terminated by the treatment facility due to noncompliance.

DOE: Department of Education (PA). An entity that oversees public school districts, charter schools, cyber charter schools, CTCs/VTSs, IUs, education of youth in Correctional Institutions, Head Starts and preschools, and community colleges in Pennsylvania.

DOH: Department of Health. In Pennsylvania, the Cabinet office of which BDAP is a part. The DOH has legislative authority for licensure of all drug and alcohol services and programs.

DUI: Driving Under the Influence. Pennsylvania’s DUI laws prohibit driving or being in actual physical control of a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs or with any amount of controlled substances in your blood.

EAP: Employee Assistance Program. An employee assistance program is an employee benefit program that assists employees with personal problems and/or work-related problems that may impact their job performance, health, mental and emotional well-being.

EBP: Evidence Based Practices. The integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and individual values which when applied by practitioners will ultimately lead to improved individual outcome.

EI: Early Intervention. An organized screening and Psycho-educational service designed to help individuals identify and reduce risky substance use behaviors.

Family Intervention: Improve outcomes for the individual with the disorder or illness by improving family engagement and effectiveness in handling the challenges associated with the problem.

Fee for Service: A payment model where services are unbundled and paid for separately. In health care, it gives an incentive for physicians to provide more treatments because payment is dependent on the quantity of care, rather than quality of care.

Grievance or Complaint: A written complaint by an individual regarding a decision made by an SCA related to denial or termination of services, level of care determination, length of stay in treatment, length of stay in ICM, determination of financial liability, or violation of the individual’s human or civil rights.

Halfway House: Programs that offer a supportive living environment with 24-hour staff and integration with clinical services to include at least 5 hours per week of onsite SUD treatment. Treatment is characterized by services such as individual, group, and family therapy; medication management; and psychoeducation. These services facilitate the application of recovery skills, relapse prevention and emotional coping strategies. They promote personal responsibility and re-integration of the individual into the network systems of work, education, and family life. Services are characterized by a live-in, work out situation.

Harm Reduction: A treatment and prevention approach that seeks to reduce the potential problems associated with substance use and to decrease the health and socio-economic costs and consequences attributed to addiction.

HHS: The United States Department of Health & Human Services, also known as the Health Department. A cabinet-level executive branch department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

HIO: Health Insurance Organization. U.S. government-led non-profit health organizations that provide information about the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 as it pertains to electronic health records (EHRs) development for incentive payments.

HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Federal regulation addressing healthcare issues related to the standardization of electronic data, the development of unique health identifiers, and security standards protecting confidentiality and the integrity of health information.

HMO: Health Maintenance Organization. A public or private organization organized under state law that is a federally qualified health maintenance organization or meets the State Plan's definition of a health maintenance organization.

ICM: Intensive Case Management. A comprehensive community service that includes evaluation, outreach, and support services, usually provided on an outpatient basis. The case manager (or case management team) advocates for the individual with community agencies and arranges services and supports. They may also teach community living and problem-solving skills, model productive behaviors, and teach the individual to become self-sufficient.

IDU: Injection Drug User. See PWID.

Impairment: A maladaptive state resulting from use of psychoactive substances, or mental, emotional or cognitive problems.

Intensive Outpatient: An organized non-residential SUD treatment service provided according to a planned regime consisting of regularly scheduled treatment sessions at least 3 days per week with a minimum greater than 5 hours and a maximum of 10 hours per week. (Note: IOP is licensed as an outpatient activity).

LOC: Level of Care. The intensity and types of treatment services ranging from outpatient to medically managed residential.

LOCA: Level of Care Assessment. A strength-based multidimensional assessment that takes into account an individual's needs, obstacles and liabilities, as well as their strengths, assets, resources and support structure. This information is used to determine the appropriate level of care across a continuum.

MA: Medical Assistance; also known as Medicaid. Pays for health care services for eligible individuals.

MA Eligible: An individual becomes eligible for MA on the date that the County Office of Assistance (COA) opens their coverage.

MA Enrolled: An individual becomes enrolled when they are eligible for medical assistance and as a result their behavioral health care becomes covered by an HMO or managed care company.

Managed Care: Approaches and insurance plans (including HMOs and PPOs) that promote efficient use of health care services by emphasizing preventive medicine and overseeing the entire range of individual care. These plans also assess the appropriateness of administered health care services. Many managed care plans limit coverage to services received from contracted providers or require higher out-of-pocket costs. Cost containment and quality assurance methods include the formation of preferred provider networks, gate keeping (or pre-certification), care management, relapse prevention, retrospective review, and claims payment.

Managed Care Organization: An entity which manages the purchase and provision of physical or behavioral health services for eligible Medical Assistance recipients.

MAT: Medication Assisted Treatment. FDA-Approved medications, to be used in conjunction with substance abuse treatment, designed to assist in recovery.

Matrix Model: An evidence-based practice that provides a framework for engaging individuals who have a stimulant use disorder in treatment and helping them achieve abstinence. Individuals learn about issues critical to addiction and relapse, receive direction and support from a trained therapist, and become familiar with self-help programs.

Medicaid or HealthChoices: The Bucks County Department of Behavioral Health is responsible for the Medicaid Behavioral Health agreement between the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the County of Bucks. The Pennsylvania Behavioral Health Medicaid program, referred to HealthChoices, provides mental health and drug and alcohol services to Bucks County residents, who are eligible for Medicaid. The County of Bucks contracts with Magellan Behavioral Health of Pennsylvania to contract with providers and ensure access to these Medicaid behavioral health services.

Medically Managed Intensive Inpatient Services: An organized service delivered in an acute care inpatient setting. It is appropriate for individuals whose acute biomedical, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive problems are so severe that they require primary medical and nursing care.

Medically Monitored High-Intensity Services (Adolescent): Programs that provide a planned and structured regime of 24-hour professionally directed evaluation and observation, medical monitoring, and addiction treatment in an inpatient setting. They are appropriate for individuals whose sub-acute biomedical and emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems are so severe they require inpatient treatment but who do not need the full resources of an acute care general hospital or a medically managed inpatient treatment program.

Medically Monitored Intensive Inpatient Services (Adult): Programs that provide a planned and structured regime of 24-hour professionally directed evaluation and observation, medical monitoring, and addiction treatment in an inpatient setting. They are appropriate for individuals whose sub-acute biomedical and emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems are so severe they require inpatient treatment but who do not need the full resources of an acute care general hospital or a medically managed inpatient treatment program.

MES: Mobile Engagement Services. Intervention services that connect with individuals to break down barriers and provide support while getting into treatment. Penn Foundation monitors high risk cases for up to three months to ensure no relapses occur – or when relapse is occurring, a quick and effective resolution is made.

MH/DP: The Department of Mental Health/Developmental Programs is responsible for the administration of services to Bucks County residents who have mental illness, intellectual disability, or developmental delay/disability, and their families. The purpose of these services is to help individuals live in the community and participate in community life. Services are provided at a variety of agencies throughout the county. Services include Crisis Services, therapy, and case management services.

NA: Narcotics Anonymous. Self-help fellowship, similar to AA. However, the focus of meetings is on abstinence from drugs other than alcohol.

Nar-Anon: Similar to Al-Anon. However, the focus is on coping with life with someone using drugs other than alcohol. The Nar-Anon Family Groups is primarily for those who know or have known a feeling of desperation concerning the addiction problem of someone very near to you.

NARCAN: NARCAN® (Naloxone HCl) Nasal Spray is the first FDA-approved nasal form of naloxone for the emergency treatment of a known or suspected opioid overdose. NARCAN® Nasal Spray counteracts the life-threatening effects of opioid overdose. Since most accidental overdoses occur in a home setting, it was developed for first responders, as well as family, friends and caregivers.

NASADAD: National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors.

NCADI: National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information. Created by a merger of the clearinghouse for NIAAA and NIDA, this agency is the national resource for up-to-date print and audiovisual information.

NIAAA: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Similar to NIDA; however, the focus is on alcohol.

NIDA: National Institute on Drug Abuse. An agency within the National Institute of Health as of 10/92, responsible primarily for research into scope and causes of drug abuse, its prevention and treatment. From time to time, NIDA makes funds available through competitive grants for research projects.

OCYF: Office of Children, Youth and Families, within the PA Department of Human Services. This office is primarily responsible for monitoring the delivery of services by county and private children and youth social service agencies, including foster care agencies, adoption agencies, and supervised independent living facilities throughout the commonwealth. Oversight of these programs is conducted by the four OCYF Regional Offices.

OMAP: Office of Medical Assistance Programs, within the PA Department of Human Services. the department that is responsible for purchasing health care for more than 2.3 million Pennsylvania residents and enrolling Medical Assistance providers who administer the care.

OMH: Office of Mental Health, within the PA Department of Human Services. This office operates psychiatric centers across the State, and also regulates, certifies and oversees more than 4,500 programs, which are operated by local governments and nonprofit agencies. These programs include various inpatient and outpatient programs, emergency, community support, residential and family care programs.

OMHSAS: Office of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, PA Department of Human Services. Source of funding to BCDAC, Inc. to address impact of welfare reform.

OTS: Opioid Treatment Services. An umbrella term that encompasses a variety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities including Methadone, Buprenorphine, and Naltrexone.

Outpatient: An organized, non-residential AOD treatment service provided in regularly scheduled treatment sessions for a maximum of 5 contact hours per week.

Overdose: A situation in which an individual is in a state requiring emergency medical intervention as a result of the use of drugs or alcohol.

OVR: Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, PA Department of Labor and Industry. This office provides vocational rehabilitation services to help persons with disabilities prepare for, obtain, or maintain employment. OVR provides services to eligible individuals with disabilities, both directly and through a network of approved vendors.

PACDAA: Pennsylvania Association of County Drug & Alcohol Administrators. The statewide association of Executive Directors and Drug & Alcohol Program Specialists who are responsible for the operation of each county's “Single County Authority.”

PA WITS: Pennsylvania Web Infrastructure for Treatment Services. DDAP’s data system, a web-based application used for a wide variety of clinical, contract, billing, and case management services. WITS provides SCAs, Providers, and DDAP with a single integrated system to collect treatment and prevention data that meets government reporting requirements for the planning, administration, and monitoring of behavioral health treatment programs, prevention programs and federal grant management programs.

Partial Hospitalization: The provision of psychiatric, psychological, and other therapies on a planned and regularly scheduled basis. Partial hospitalization is designed for those individuals who would benefit from more intensive services than are offered in outpatient treatment programs, but who do not require 24-hour inpatient care. This environment provides multi-modal and multidisciplinary programming. Services consist of regularly scheduled treatment sessions a minimum of 3 days per week with a minimum of 10 or more hours per week.

PCCD: Pennsylvania Commission on Crime & Delinquency. The source for planning, statistical analysis and program development for Pennsylvania's justice system. Also a funding source for criminal justice initiatives.

Placement: The process of matching the assessed service and treatment needs of an individual with the appropriate level of care and type of service.

POI: Proof of income. A document or set of documents that someone requests to verify your income and determine your ability to pay. Some may ask for some form of a proof of income letter. This letter summarizes and verifies your income and employment.

POR: Proof of residency. Documentation which proves that an individual lives where he or she claims.

PPO: Preferred Provider Organization. A type of health plan that contracts with medical providers, such as hospitals and doctors, to create a network of participating providers. Individuals pays less if they use providers that belong to the plan’s network. There is an additional cost for using doctors, hospitals, and providers outside of the network.

Pre-Certification: The initial process of determining what services should be authorized for the individual’s care.

Prevention: Prevention activities work to educate and support individuals and communities to prevent the use and misuse of drugs and the development of substance use disorders. Substance use and mental disorders can make daily activities difficult and impair a person’s ability to work, interact with family, and fulfill other major life functions. Mental and substance use disorders are among the top conditions that cause disability in the United States. Preventing mental and/or substance use disorders or co-occurring disorders and related problems is critical to behavioral and physical health. Includes activities that promote positive behaviors, i.e. increased self-understanding, improved interpersonal and human relations’ skills and effective coping behaviors. Federal prevention categories are Information Dissemination, Education, Community Based, Problem Identification, Environment and Alternatives.

Primary Care Physician: A physician specializing in family practice, general internal medicine or pediatrics. In an HMO plan, the primary care physician oversees all health care services administered to an individual, whether by his or her own practice or by referral to other providers.

Program Funding or Cost Reimbursement: A reimbursement mechanism where a block of funds is given to an agency prior to provision of a service, in anticipation that some pre-agreed upon level of service will be provided. Typically, an agency is paid based on a monthly invoice for expenses net of all other revenues.

Project MEDS: Medication Education Designed for seniors is a program whereas trained senior volunteers do presentations before senior groups regarding medication misuse. It is a joint project of BCDAC, Inc. and Bucks County Area on Aging.

Provider: Any individual or organization that delivers health care services, including but not limited to, primary care physicians, specialists, diagnostic testing centers, hospitals, home care agencies and pharmacies.

PWID: Persons who inject drugs.

QA: Quality Assurance. The process of ensuring that services are provided in a quality way to individuals with meaningful results. Quality assurance comprises administrative and procedural activities implemented in a quality system so that requirements and goals for a service or activity will be fulfilled.

RCPA: Rehabilitation & Community Providers Association. Represents providers of health and human services committed to effective, efficient and high-quality care. Includes a division for mental health and substance abuse providers across Pennsylvania.

Recovery: A process of sustained action that addresses the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual disturbances inherent in addition. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Commission (SAMHSA) defines recovery as “a process of change through which individuals improve their health and wellness, live self-directed lives and strive to reach their full potential.”

Red Ribbon Campaign: A national campaign usually observed at the end of October in memory of a Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) agent. Red Ribbon serves as a catalyst to mobilize communities to educate youth and encourage participation in drug prevention activities. Since that time, the campaign has reached millions of U.S. children and families.

Referral: An authorization generally made by the primary care physician, for a specialized health care service beyond the expertise of that primary care physician. The referral documents the medical need for the service and ensures payment.

RFP/RFI: Request for Proposals/Request for Information. The formal invitation to submit proposals for funding to a grant source.

Risk: The expected financial cost of insuring health coverage. The probability of risk is referred to as high or low, with high-risk individuals more likely to require services and incur greater costs.

ROI: Release of Information. A form consenting/authorizing the release of information.

ROSC: Recovery Oriented System of Care. ROSC is strength based, person centered approach to recovery management. It is individualized and focuses on individuals, families and communities to support recovery as a long-term disease model.

RSS: Recovery Support Services. Recovery support services are non-clinical services that assist individuals and families to recover from alcohol and other drug problems. These services complement the focus of treatment, outreach, engagement and other strategies and interventions to assist people in recovery in gaining the skills and resources needed to initiate, maintain, and sustain long-term recovery.

SADD: Students Against Drinking & Drugs. National organization of students with local chapters usually based in schools, whose primary goal is to prevent drinking/driving deaths.

Safe & Drug-Free Communities Act: The federal Drug-free Schools and Communities Schools and Act of 1986 requires all schools participating in its funding to ensure that the school will be an important part of a community-wide effort to achieve a drug-free population.

SAMHSA: Substance Abuse & Mental Health Service Administration. Lead federal agency for Substance Abuse & Mental Health and a division of Health and Human Services.

SAP: Student Assistance Program. A service within schools, grades K-12, designed to assist school personnel in identifying issues including alcohol, tobacco, other drugs and mental health issues which pose a barrier to a student’s success. The primary goal of SAP is to help students overcome these barriers in order that they may achieve, remain in school and advance.

SAPT: Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment- funding source utilized by States to provide substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

S.B.I.R.T.: Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment. An evidence-based, effective method to intervene in alcohol and drug misuse. A comprehensive, integrated, public health approach to the delivery of early intervention and treatment services for persons with substance use disorders, as well as those who are at risk of developing these disorders. Primary care centers, hospital emergency rooms, trauma centers, and other community settings provide opportunities for early intervention.

SCA: Single County Authority. In order to receive State and Federal administrative, treatment, and prevention funding, Counites are required to designate an agency to function as the SCA that is responsible for program planning and the administration of State and Federally funded grant agreements. The SCA is an agency contracted through the Pennsylvania Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs (DDAP) with the County for the centralized lead and provision of alcohol, tobacco and other drug prevention, intervention and treatment and recovery support services. The SCA is responsible for the administration, planning, coordination and evaluation of drug and alcohol services for the uninsured and the underinsured within the County. The Bucks County Drug & Alcohol Commission, Inc. is the identified SCA for Bucks County. The mission of the Bucks County Drug & Alcohol Commission, Inc. is to promote healthy individuals, families and communities, eliminate the misuse, abuse and/or addiction to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs and support those in recovery from addiction.

Screening: The first step in identifying the presence or absence of alcohol or other drug (AOD) use whereby data is collected on an individual in order to make an initial determination if an alcohol or other drug problem exists and/or to determine if emergency services are warranted.

SDS: SCA Data System. DDAP’s state data system which contains the contractual information for each SCA within Pennsylvania.

Self-Help Group: Also known as Mutual Aid Groups. A Group of individuals dealing with similar issues that meets to support each other and share helpful information (e.g. AA, NA, etc.).

Self-medication: The use of a substance to lessen the negative effects of stress, anxiety, or other mental disorders (or side effects of their pharmacotherapy) without the guidance of a health care provider. Self-medication may lead to addiction and other drug- or alcohol-related problems. (NIDA)

Self-sufficiency: The point at which the individual is able to maintain recovery efforts and service needs without the help of the case manager or significant support from other social service agencies.

Service Planning: The development of a specific plan for each individual, with provisions or action steps necessary for the individual to access identified needed support services; a well-documented plan of action for the individual to achieve and maintain participation in needed services.

SLAP: Sober Living Association of Pennsylvania. A network of independently operated sober living homes located in Pennsylvania. This organization was founded in 2017 to serve the recovery population in our area. These homes unite with the guidance and support of the Sober Living Association of PA to exchange information, provide quality assurance and establish professional standards for services to their residents and the community.

SMI: Serious Mental Illness. A diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder that an individual experience which causes them serious functional impairment that substantially interferes with or limits at least one major life activity.

Sobriety: A state of sustained abstinence with a clear commitment to and active seeking of balance in the biological, psychological, social and spiritual aspects of an individual’s health and wellness that were previously compromised by active addiction.

SPMI: Serious and Persistent Mental Illness. Severe mental health disorders. The SPMI category includes Major Depression, Bipolar Disorders, Schizophrenia and Borderline Personality Disorder.

SSA: Single State Agency. The State Agency appointed to administer public funds for the Commonwealth drug and alcohol program. In Pennsylvania, this is the Pennsylvania Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs (DDAP).

SSDI: Social Security Disability Insurance. Provides benefits to disabled or blind persons who are insured by workers’ contributions to the Social Security trust fund. These contributions are based on earnings (or those of a spouse or parents). Dependents may also be eligible for benefits from earnings record.

SSI: Supplemental Security Income. A federal supplemental income program funded by general tax revenues (not Social Security taxes). It helps aged, blind, and disabled people who have limited income and resources by providing monthly cash payments to meet basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter.

Stages of Change: A model that was introduced in the late 1970s by researchers James Prochaska and Carlo DiClemente. This model has been found to be an effective aid in understanding how people go through a change in behavior. It’s important to note that change occurs gradually, and relapses are an inevitable part of the process.

STDs: Sexually Transmitted Diseases. These diseases are most often – but not exclusively – spread by sexual intercourse.

Stigma: A set of negative attitudes and beliefs that motivate people to fear and discriminate against other people. Many people do not understand that addiction is a disorder just like other chronic disorders. For these reasons, they frequently attach more stigma to it. Stigma, whether perceived or real, often fuels myths and misconceptions, and can influence choices. It can impact attitudes about seeking treatment, reactions from family and friends, behavioral health education and awareness, and the likelihood that someone will not seek or remain in treatment. (NIDA)

Strengths Based Approach: A model of case management which identifies a person’s strengths and potentials and takes an active role in helping individuals secure community resources; an approach that provides the individual with support toward asserting direct control over the search for resources. Advocacy is a major emphasis of this model.

Subcontractor/Provider: Agency or individuals receiving funding service from BCDAC, Inc. via contract.

Subrecipient: Another term for subcontractor or provider.

SUD: Substance use disorder. A medical illness caused by disordered use of a substance or substances. According to the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), SUDs are characterized by clinically significant impairments in health, social function, and impaired control over substance use and are diagnosed through assessing cognitive, behavioral, and psychological symptoms. A SUD can range from mild to severe. (NIDA)

TB: Tuberculosis. A contagious infection that usually attacks your lungs. It can also spread to other parts of your body, like your brain and spine.

TBI: Traumatic Brain Injury. CDC defines a traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury. Everyone is at risk for a TBI, especially children and older adults.

TEDS: Treatment Episode Data Set. An administrative data system providing descriptive information about the national flow of admissions to specialty providers of substance abuse treatment. It is a compilation of data on the demographic and substance abuse characteristics of admissions to (and more recently, on discharges from) substance abuse treatment.

Telehealth: The use of digital technologies such as electronic health records, mobile applications, telemedicine, and web-based tools to support the delivery of health care, health-related education, or other health-related services and functions. (Surgeon General)

Telemedicine: Two-way, real-time interactive communication between an individual and a physician or other health care professional at a distant site. Telemedicine is a subcategory of telehealth. (Surgeon General)

THC: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; the main mind-altering ingredient in marijuana.

Therapeutic Community: Treatment setting in which persons with similar problems meet and provide mutual support to help overcome those problems, with structured rules, guidelines, etc.

Tolerance: Condition in which a person must keep increasing the dosage of a drug to maintain the same effect. Tolerance develops with the barbiturates, amphetamines and related compounds, and opiates.

Toxicity: Degree of poisonousness. Any substance in excessive amounts can act as a poison or toxin. With drugs, the margin between the dosage that produces beneficial effects and the dosage that produces toxic or poisonous effects varies with the drug and the person receiving it.

Transitional Living: Non-medical residential program providing training for living in a setting of greater independence. The primary focus is on teaching functional skills and compensating for abilities that cannot be restored. (i.e. Halfway House, Recovery Housing, Sober Living Housing, etc.).

Trauma: An event, series of events, or set of circumstances that an individual experiences through physical or emotional or threatening behavior which has lasting adverse effects on the individual’s function and physical, social, emotional and/or spiritual well-being.

Trauma-Informed Care: An organizational structure and treatment framework that involves understanding, recognizing, and responding to the effects of all types of trauma. Trauma Informed Care also emphasizes physical, psychological and emotional safety for both individuals and providers, and helps survivors rebuild a sense of control and empowerment.

Treatment: The application of medicines, surgery, therapy, etc., in treating a disease or disorder through planned procedures which facilitate the identification of patterns and behavior that are dysfunctional, destructive, and/or harmful to the individual’s well-being and social functioning.

Treatment Plan: A medical and clinical plan, designed by the physicians and clinicians of addiction and alcohol treatment programs, complete with goals and objectives focused on the addict or alcoholic achieving and maintaining long term abstinence.

TREM: Treatment Recovery and Empowerment Model. An evidence-based, facilitated group approach to healing from the effects of trauma. It combines elements of social skills training, psychoeducational and psychodynamic techniques, and emphasizes peer support. It focuses on individuals age 18 to 55, male or female, with severe mental disorders, and/or substance use disorders. It also addresses a broad range of trauma symptoms.

TX: Treatment. Activities carried out to assist individuals to deal with the negative causative effects or consequences of drug or alcohol abuse. Includes the application of social, psychological or medical service methods.

UDS: Urine Drug Screen (urine drug test). A painless test that analyzes the urine for the presence of certain illegal drugs and prescription medications.

Unit Cost: The specific amount paid for a defined service, i.e., the cost for one-day (unit) of residential treatment might be $80 and the cost for one hour (unit) of family therapy at an outpatient program might be $40.

Utilization Review: An assessment of each individual case, which examines how health care services are delivered and the appropriateness of the care provided.

VA: The Department of Veterans Affairs. Runs programs benefiting veterans and members of their families. It offers education opportunities and rehabilitation services and provides compensation payments for disabilities or death related to military service, home loan guaranties, pensions, burials, and health care that includes the services of nursing homes, clinics, and medical centers. (United States Government)

Vaping: Inhaling the aerosol or vapor from an electronic cigarette, e-vaporizer, or other device.

VBA: Veterans Benefits Administration. A component of the VA that is responsible for administering the Department’s programs that provide financial and other forms of assistance to Veterans, their dependents, and survivors.

Veteran: A person who served in the active military, naval, or air service, and who was discharged or released there from under conditions other than dishonorable. (United States Military Code)

WFS: Women for Sobriety. Self-help program for women who are recovering from alcoholism/drug addiction. WFS offers a "new life" program to women with a major focus on improving their self-esteem and concept.

Withdrawal: Symptoms that can occur after long-term use of a drug is reduced or stopped; these symptoms occur if tolerance to a substance has occurred and vary according to substance. Withdrawal symptoms can include negative emotions such as stress, anxiety, or depression, as well as physical effects such as nausea, vomiting, muscle aches, and cramping, among others. Withdrawal symptoms often lead a person to use the substance again. (NIDA)

Withdrawal Management: Services to assist an individual’s withdrawal. Withdrawal syndrome is the onset of a predictable constellation of signs and symptoms following the abrupt discontinuation of, or rapid decrease in, dosage of a psychoactive substance.

WHO: Warm Hand Off. DDAP has identified WHO as a process of working with stakeholders to ensure a seamless transition for opioid overdose survivors from emergency medical care to specialty substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, thus improving the prospect of recovery
Wrap -around services - are non-clinical services that facilitate individual engagement and retention in treatment as well as their ongoing recovery. This can include services to address individuals needs related to transportation, employment, childcare, housing, legal and financial problems, among others. (Surgeon General)

WHO: World Health Organization. The specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with health on an international level.